This text is adapted from Longinus on the Sublime, translated by W. Rhys Roberts (London: Cambridge University Press, 1899). The sublime also emerges out of powerful emotions. [2] Not only does Longinus come to Plato's defense, but he also attempts to raise his literary standing in opposition to current criticisms. 13th century - A Byzantine rhetorician makes obscure references to what may be Longinus' text. [5] Longinus ultimately promotes an "elevation of style"[5] and an essence of "simplicity". [10] Moreover, the author invents striking images and metaphors, writing almost lyrically at times. The earliest surviving manuscript, from the 10th century, was first printed in 1554. If Petronius pointed out excess of rhetoric and the pompous, unnatural techniques of the schools of eloquence as the causes of decay, Tacitus was nearer to Longinus in thinking[1] that the root of this decadence was the establishment of Princedom, or Empire, which, though it brought stability and peace, also gave rise to censorship and brought an end to freedom of speech. Cassius was executed by Aurelian, the Roman emperor who conquered Palmyra in 273 AD, on charges of conspiring against the Roman state. But these are not just any emotions; they must be true emotions in the right place. That it is therefore one of the most affecting we have. On the Sublime centers on aesthetics and the benefits of strong writing.Longinus does this by analyzing both strong and weak writing from works written over the previous thousand years. • 10th century - The original treatise, before translation, is copied into a medieval manuscript and attributed to "Dionysius or Longinus." Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [5] One of the reasons why it is so unlikely that known ancient critics wrote On the Sublime is because the treatise is composed so differently from any other literary work. Dionysius of Halicarnassus wrote under Augustus, publishing a number of works. Contexts -- The Sublime The sublime, a notion in aesthetic and literary theory, is a striking grandeur of thought and emotion. Burke, Kant and the Sublime by Gur Hirshberg “…my first observation… will be found very nearly true; that the sublime is an idea belonging to selfpreservation. Kant's account of aesthetics and teleology is ostensibly part of abroader discussion of the faculty or power of judgment[Urteilskraft], which is the faculty “for thinking theparticular under the universal” (Introduction IV,5:179). The author is unknown. [5] Moreover, Longinus stresses that transgressive writers are not necessarily shameless fools, even if they take literary risks that seem "bold, lawless, and original". In reading On the Sublime, critics have determined that the ancient philosopher and writer Plato is a "great hero" to Longinus. The treatise highlights examples of good and bad writing from the previous millennium, focusing particularly on what may lead to the sublime. sublime - change or cause to change directly from a solid into a vapor without first melting; "sublime iodine"; "some salts sublime when heated" sublimate aerify , gasify , vaporize , vaporise - turn into gas; "The substance gasified" The author further suggests that greatness of thought, if not inborn, may be acquired by emulating great authors such as Homer, Demosthenes, and Plato. [5], Longinus critically applauds and condemns certain literary works as examples of good or bad styles of writing. Dionysius maintained ideas which are absolutely opposite to those written in the treatise; with Longinus, there are problems with chronology. Burke, Edmund. Diego Armando Maradona’s demise yesterday triggered an outpouring of grief across the world. The work ends with a dissertation on the decay of oratory, a typical subject for the time when authors such as Tacitus, Petronius and Quintilian, who also dealt with the subject, were alive. There is, indeed, a modern English version by Spurden,I.1 but that is now rare,and seldom comes into the market. Updates? When the manuscript was being prepared for printed publication, the work was initially attributed to Cassius Longinus (c. 213–273 AD). . On the Sublime (Greek: Περì Ὕψους Perì Hýpsous) is a work on literary criticism written Greek at some point during the Roman empire. Longinus rebels against the popular rhetoric of the time by implicitly attacking ancient theory in its focus on a detailed criticism of words, metaphors, and figures. On the Sublime is given a 1st-century-ce date because it was a response to a work of that period by Caecilius of Calacte, a Sicilian rhetorician. NOW 50% OFF! [1] In general, Longinus appreciates, and makes use of, simple diction and bold images.[2]. Longinus. Neither author can be accepted as the actual writer of the treatise. Herzog says that he thinks of Longinus as a good friend and considers that Longinus's notions of illumination has a parallel in some moments in his films. On the Sublime. ‘The sublime jostled with the ridiculous for attention as Edmonton's Thespians donned their finest plumage to dazzle, bewilder and delight.’ ‘In each religion we discover the interweaving of the sublime and the ridiculous, the liberatory and the oppressive, the radical and the conventional.’ [3][2][4] Cassius is a dubious possibility for author of the treatise because he wrote in the 3rd century, and no literature later than the 1st century AD is mentioned (the latest is Cicero, who died in 43 BC)[clarification needed] and the work is now usually dated to the early 1st century AD. [8], In the treatise, the author asserts that "the Sublime leads the listeners not to persuasion, but to ecstasy: for what is wonderful always goes together with a sense of dismay, and prevails over what is only convincing or delightful, since persuasion, as a rule, is within everyone's grasp: whereas, the Sublime, giving to speech an invincible power and [an invincible] strength, rises above every listener". Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! It might be outdated or ideologically biased. In this way the treatise becomes not only a text of literary inquiry, but also one of ethical dissertation, since the Sublime becomes the product of a great soul (μεγαλοφροσύνης ἀπήχημα, megalophrosunēs apēchēma). [1] There remains the possibility that the work belongs to neither Cassius Longinus nor Dionysius of Halicarnassus, but, rather, some unknown author writing under the Roman Empire, likely in the 1st century. Thus the treatise is clearly centred in the burning controversy which raged in the 1st century AD in Latin literature. [2] As for social subjectivity, Longinus acknowledges that complete liberty promotes spirit and hope; according to Longinus, "never did a slave become an orator". Finally, Longinus sets out five sources of sublimity: "great thoughts, strong emotions, certain figures of thought and speech, noble diction, and dignified word arrangement". Authorship is weird, the text says, and texts are weird. Moreover, about one-third of the treatise is missing;[5] Longinus' segment on similes, for instance, has only a few words remaining. But the sublime moves us more profoundly than the beautiful. Sublime, in literary criticism, grandeur of thought, emotion, and spirit that characterizes great literature. He later moved to Asia Minor, where he achieved the position of advisor to Zenobia, the queen of Palmyra. Since the correct translation includes the possibility of an author named "Dionysius", some have attributed the work to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a writer of the 1st century AD. Notvalueless, to a generation which talks much about style and method inliterature, should be this new rendering of the noble fragment, longattributed to Longinus, the Greek tutor and political adviser ofZenobia. On the Sublime, Greek Peri hypsous, treatise on literary criticism by Longinus, dating to about the 1st century ce.The earliest surviving manuscript, from the 10th century, was first printed in 1554. Thanks to Italian scholar Amati, Cassius Longinus is no longer assumed to be the writer of, 20th century - Although the text is still little quoted, it maintains its status, apart from Aristotle's, This page was last edited on 1 September 2020, at 03:15. In opposition to the rational thinking of the Enlightenment, Romantics often seek the sublime.. "[8] The concept of the sublime is generally accepted to refer to a style of writing that elevates itself "above the ordinary". By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. Illustrative quotations recorded in On the Sublime occasionally preserved work that would otherwise now be lost—for example, one of Sappho’s odes. Longinus is reported to have written answers for the Queen, which were used in response to Aurelian, the man who would soon rise to power as the Roman emperor.[3]. The sublime evades easy definition. Sublime Action: George Stubbs’s Lion and Horse series Aris Sarafianos How to cite ‘The Romantic sublime’, in Nigel Llewellyn and Christine Riding (eds. [10] Greene also claims that Longinus' focus on hyperbolical descriptions is "particularly weak, and misapplied. Hence the one may be terrible sublime, the other noble….A long duration is sublime. There's a particular pleasure to be felt in the mighty things of nature: thunderstorms, the stars, vast deserts, oceans, the icecaps. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Secondly, there is vehement and inspired passion. A very great height is sublime as well as a very great depth; but the latter is accompanied by the sense of terror, the former by admiration. On the Sublime (Greek: Περì Ὕψους Perì Hýpsous; Latin: De sublimitate) is a Roman-era Greek work of literary criticism dated to the 1st century AD. Rare, too, is Vaucher’s critical essay(1854), which is unlu… VII: Of the SUBLIME. [2] In fact, critics speculate that Longinus avoided publication in the ancient world "either by modesty or by prudential motives". In the 10th-century reference manuscript (Parisinus Graecus 2036), the heading reports "Dionysius or Longinus", an ascription by the medieval copyist that was misread as "by Dionysius Longinus." [5] The treatise is also limited in its concentration on spiritual transcendence and lack of focus on the way in which language structures determine the feelings and thoughts of writers. Corrections? From Wikisource. READINGS Longinus, On Great Writing (On the Sublime), (Hackett, 1991) Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into Our Ideas of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (Oxford UP, 1998) Reading Packet (available at Allegra) Contents of Reading Packet: I. Neil Hertz, “A Reading of Longinus,” The End of the Line: Essays on Psychoanalysis and the Sublime (Columbia UP, 1985), 1-20. Sublime Lifestyle thema’s Laat je meevoeren in de wereld van SUBLIME met onze Lifestyle thema’s! On the Sublime, Greek Peri hypsous, treatise on literary criticism by Longinus, dating to about the 1st century ce. Sublime Streams; Created by Global Logic B.V. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. Vol. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Harvard Classics On the Sublime is both a treatise on aesthetics and a work of literary criticism. It contains 17 chapters on figures of speech, which have occupied critics and poets ever since they were written. 9 Vol. 1909–14. The Nature of the Sublime First and most important is the power of forming great conceptions, as we have elsewhere explained in our remarks on Xenophon. This was most likely because of what he had written for Queen Zenobia of Palmyra while she was still in power. On the Sublime by Longinus is a work of literary criticism thought to date back to 1st century Rome. Let there be earth, and there was. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, Dr George P. Landow, "Longinus" "On Great Writing" and the 18th-century Sublime", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=On_the_Sublime&oldid=976083484, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10th century - The original treatise, before translation, is copied into a medieval manuscript and attributed to "Dionysius or Longinus.". The manuscript tradition attributes the work to 'Dionsysius or Longinus' and its true provenance has been the subject of much debate. [5], Despite Longinus' critical acclaim, his writing is far from perfect. As far as the language is concerned, the work is certainly a unicum because it is a blend of expressions of the Hellenistic Koine Greek to which are added elevated constructions, technical expressions, metaphors, classic and rare forms which produce a literary pastiche at the borders of linguistic experimentation. [Longinus], On the Sublime - Chapters 1-22 The real name of the author of this famous piece of literary criticism is unknown, but traditionally he has been called Longinus; for more information, see the translator's introduction.. Since Longinus' rhetorical formula avoids dominating his work, the literature remains "personal and fresh," unique in its originality. On the Sublime a classical treatise on aesthetics and literary criticism dating from the first century A.D. and long attributed to the third-century rhetorician and philosopher Longinus. The Ethics of the Sublime: Part One Sublime It is true that the nodes above are not directly related to mine since they address Kant's, Nietzche's, and Lyotard's views on the sublime and I treat the view espoused by Schiller. The sources of the Sublime are of two kinds: inborn sources ("aspiration to vigorous concepts" and "strong and enthusiastic passion") and acquirable sources (rhetorical devices, choice of the right lexicon, and "dignified and high composition").[8]. These two components of the sublime are for the most part innate. The sublime in literature refers to use of language and description that excites thoughts and emotions beyond ordinary experience. Translators have been unable to clearly interpret the text, including the title itself. More explicitly, in refusing to judge tropes as entities unto themselves, Longinus promotes the appreciation of literary devices as they relate to passages as a whole. Thus oratory became merely an exercise in style. 48 likes. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. "[2], Despite its faults, the treatise remains critically successful because of its "noble tone," "apt precepts," "judicious attitude," and "historical interests". [6] As such, Longinus emphasizes that, to be a truly great writer, authors must have "moral excellence". Dionysius is generally dismissed as the potential author of On the Sublime, since the writing officially attributed to Dionysius differs from the work On the Sublime in style and thought. About a third of the manuscript is lost. [6] Finally, Longinus' treatise is difficult to explain in an academic setting, given the difficulty of the text and lack of "practical rules of a teachable kind. [2] Matters are further complicated in realizing that ancient writers, Longinus' contemporaries, do not quote or mention the treatise in any way. “On the Sublime” directly influenced poets such as John Dryden and Alexander Pope, and the idea of the sublime played a central role in the work of the Romantic movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The word sublime, argues Rhys Roberts, is misleading, since Longinus' objective broadly concerns "the essentials of a noble and impressive style" than anything more narrow and specific. The English translation is by by W.H. Among further names proposed, are Hermagoras (a rhetorician who lived in Rome during the 1st century AD), Aelius Theon (author of a work which had many ideas in common with those of On the Sublime), and Pompeius Geminus (who was in epistolary conversation with Dionysius). Detroit: The Gale Group Inc, 2004. is Astonishment; and astonishment is that state of the soul, in which all its motions are suspended, with some degree of horror. ), The Art of the Sublime , Tate Research Publication, January 2013, https://www .tate .org .uk /art /research -publications /the -sublime /the -romantic -sublime -r1109221, accessed 29 November 2020. Longinus' occasional enthusiasm becomes "carried away" and creates some confusion as to the meaning of his text. See how Edmund Burke tied the experience of the sublime to the possibility of pain and how the idea went on to … While the author is not definitively known, Longinus or Pseudo-Longinus is typically credited for the work. Defined "The passion caused by the great and sublime in nature . [5], German film director Werner Herzog claims to have an affinity with the work of Longinus, in a talk entitled "On the Absolute, the Sublime and Ecstatic Truth", presented in Milan. 16th century - The treatise is ignored by scholars until it is published by, 17th century - Sublime effects become a desired end of much, 19th century - Early in the 19th century, doubts arise to the authorship of the treatise. Boileau,in his introduction to his version of the ancient Treatise on theSublime, says that he is making no valueless present to his age. ", Given his positive reference to Genesis, Longinus has been assumed to be either a Hellenized Jew or readily familiar with the Jewish culture. This is the first known instance in which greatness in literature is ascribed to qualities innate in the writer rather than his art. On the Sublime by Longinus Longinus defines sublime as a kind of loftiness and excellence in language raising the style of the ordinary language. The error does imply that when the codex was written, the trails of the real author were already lost. Fyfe (1927). Those which remain are partly the product of art. He quotes from Longinus: "For our soul is raised out of nature through the truly sublime, sways with high spirits, and is filled with proud joy, as if itself had created what it hears.". [8] To quote this famous author, "the first and most important source of sublimity [is] the power of forming great conceptions. Omissions? That its strongest emotion is an emotion of distress, and that no pleasure from a positive cause belongs to it.” (Burke, p.79) Although the Critique of Pure Reason includes somediscussion of the faculty of judgment, defined as “the capacityto subsume under rules, that is, to distinguish whether somethingfalls under a given rule” (krV A132/B171), it is not untilthe Critique of Judgment that he treats judgment as af… Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The treatise is dedicated to Posthumius Terentianus, a cultured Roman and public figure, though little else is known of him. Close. Another influence on the treatise can be found in Longinus' rhetorical figures, which draw from theories by a 1st-century BC writer, Caecilius of Calacte. The Sublime. . [5] Along with the expected examples from Homer and other figures of Greek culture, Longinus refers to a passage from Genesis, which is quite unusual for the 1st century: A similar effect was achieved by the lawgiver of the Jews—no mean genius, for he both understood and gave expression to the power of the divinity as it deserved—when he wrote at the very beginning of his laws, and I quote his words: "God said,"—what was it?—"Let there be light, and there was. There has been a lot of tribute paid to his sublime skills on the football field. It is the topic of an incomplete treatise, On the Sublime, that was for long attributed to the 3rd-century Greek philosopher Cassius Longinus but now believed to have been written in the Probably it should be said that On the Sublime was written anonymously since the very point that the person who wrote On the Sublime makes in the treatise On the Sublime is that authorship, in a sense, transcends authorship. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). The "sublime" in the title has been translated in various ways, to include senses of elevation and excellent style. On the Sublime. The Sublime must be simple; the Beautiful may be decorated and adorned. The author defines sublimity (hypsos) in literature as “the echo of greatness of spirit”—that is, the moral and imaginative power of the writer that pervades his work. Its author is unknown, but is conventionally referred to as Longinus (/lɒnˈdʒaɪnəs/; Ancient Greek: Λογγῖνος Longĩnos) or Pseudo-Longinus. Furthermore, 18th-century critic Edward Burnaby Greene finds Longinus, at times, to be "too refined". This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/On-the-Sublime, The University of Adelaide - "On the Sublime". [7] On the other hand, too much luxury and wealth leads to a decay in eloquence—eloquence being the goal of the sublime writer. It is regarded as a classic work on aesthetics and the effects of good writing. 24, Part 2. Elke dag de nieuwste content op onderwerpen die horen bij een bewuste en lekkere levensstijl. "[5] Despite his criticism of ancient texts, Longinus remains a "master of candor and good-nature". He received his education at Alexandria and then went to Athens to teach. By Simon Court The idea of the sublime is central to a Romantic’s perception of, and heightened awareness in, the world. [9], According to this statement, one could think that the sublime, for Longinus, was only a moment of evasion from reality. It is written in an epistolary form and the final part, possibly dealing with public speaking, has been lost. On the Sublime is a Roman-era Greek work of literary criticism dated to the 1st century AD. However, although Schiller's concept of the sublime is very distinctive from Kant's, Kant's influence is undeniable. The author speaks also about the decay of oratory, as arising not only from absence of political freedom but also from the corruption of morals, which together destroy that high spirit which generates the Sublime. [2], Credited with writing a number of literary works, Longinus was disciple of Plotinus, and considered "the most distinguished scholar of his day." [6], The effects of the Sublime are: loss of rationality, an alienation leading to identification with the creative process of the artist and a deep emotion mixed in pleasure and exaltation. Not gradually (for there is no transition from dependence to freedom), but suddenly 6 and with a shock it tears the independent spirit out of the net in which a refined sensuousness has entoiled it, and which binds all the more tightly the more gossamer its weave. Though often associated with grandeur, the sublime may also refer to the grotesque or other extraordinary experiences that "take[s] us beyond ourselves.”. Sublimity springs from a great and lofty soul, thereby becoming “one echo of a great soul". [1] Essentially, Longinus, rare for a critic of his time, focuses more on "greatness of style" than "technical rules. On the Sublime is a compendium of literary exemplars, with about 50 authors spanning 1,000 years mentioned or quoted. The locus classicus is Peri Hypsous (first translated as On the Sublime in 1712), long attributed to a Greek writer called Longinus.Longinus defines literary sublimity as "excellence in language," the "expression of a great spirit," and the power to provoke "ecstasy." A writer's goal is not so much to express empty feelings, but to arouse emotion in her audience. Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling. "[1] Occasionally, Longinus also falls into a sort of "tediousness" in treating his subjects. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. An example of sublime (which the author quotes in the work) is a poem by Sappho, the so-called Ode to Jealousy, defined as a "Sublime ode". But on the contrary, he thought that literature could model a soul, and that a soul could pour itself out into a work of art. Thus the sublime affords us an egress from the sensuous world in which the beautiful would gladly hold us forever captive. Cookie settings ACCEPT. See also sublime. On the Sublime and Beautiful. Today the word is used for the most ordinary reasons, for a ‘sublime’ tennis shot or a ‘sublime’ evening.
2020 on the sublime