Further captures result in lead-206, lead-207, and lead-208. When you need fire alarm, CCTV or access control system installation that you can rely on, look no further than PB Security. 01925 732 848 sales@pbproductsuk.co.uk. In this quickly shifting ecommerce landscape, Pitney Bowes is surveying consumers on a wide variety of ecommerce topics each week and publishing the best of our findings every month. © 2016 Hitachi ID Systems, Inc.Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. With SendPro Online, print postage online for mailing and shipping even when working remotely with plans starting at $4.99/mo. [92][l] This figure is two and a half times higher than that of platinum, eight times more than mercury, and seventeen times more than gold. We are looking forward to welcoming you, your family and friends at PB Valley the birthplace of the Khao Yai Wine Region again in the not too far future – cheers . The effects of chronic ingestion of lead, including mental disorders, were also studied in the 19th century. For a low-grade feed, all of the lead can be oxidized to a high-lead slag. For more information please contact info@pbscotland.scot. Use code CYBER30. The updated content was reintegrated into the Wikipedia page under a CC-BY-SA-3.0 license (2018). Find out how our great terms and streamlined borrowing process helped Klumm Brothers demolish the competition. [244] A small amount of lead (1%) is stored in bones; the rest is excreted in urine and feces within a few weeks of exposure. [102] At this point, the neutrons are arranged in complete shells in the atomic nucleus, and it becomes harder to energetically accommodate more of them. [98], In the r-process (r is for "rapid"), captures happen faster than nuclei can decay. [87], Lead's per-particle abundance in the Solar System is 0.121 ppb (parts per billion). [272] In 1992, U.S. Congress required the Environmental Protection Agency to reduce the blood lead levels of the country's children. Its chemical symbol is Pb, which comes from plumbum, the Latin word for lead. [184] According to the International Resource Panel's Metal Stocks in Society report of 2010, the total amount of lead in use, stockpiled, discarded, or dissipated into the environment, on a global basis, is 8 kg per capita. Global reserves—resources that are economically feasible to extract—totaled 88 million tons in 2016, of which Australia had 35 million, China 17 million, and Russia 6.4 million. [293] Lead is released to the wildlife in shooting places and a number of lead management practices, such as stewardship of the environment and reduced public scrutiny, have been developed to counter the lead contamination. Find local PB Events. The resulting bismuth dross can be skimmed off. Oxidized contaminants float to the top of the melt and are skimmed off. The lead provides lubrication, and the copper provides the load-bearing support. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes are endpoints of major nuclear decay chains of heavier elements. ", "Human Activity Has Polluted European Air for 2000 Years", "The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health", Toxic Substances: A Half Century of Progress, "Oddy Tests: Adding the Analytical Dimension", "Blood Lead Levels and Major Depressive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in US Young Adults", "Interior secretary repeals ban on lead bullets", "Did removing lead from petrol spark a decline in crime? It remains the main material for bullets, alloyed with other metals as hardeners. [196], In this process, lead bullion and slag is obtained directly from lead concentrates. The version of record as reviewed is: "Lead: properties, history, and applications" (PDF), WikiJournal of Science, 1 (2): 7, 3 July 2018, doi:10.15347/WJS/2018.007, ISSN 2470-6345, Wikidata Q56050531, This article is about the metal. Soil can be contaminated through particulate accumulation from lead in pipes, lead paint, and residual emissions from leaded gasoline. Contact Us. [218] Molten lead has been used as a coolant for lead-cooled fast reactors. The resulting concentrate, which has a lead content of 30–80% by mass (regularly 50–60%),[187] is then turned into (impure) lead metal. Several studies, mostly cross-sectional, found an association between increased lead exposure and decreased heart rate variability. [58] They may be made in liquid ammonia via the reduction of lead by sodium. [277] Lead was banned for shot and sinkers in the United States in 2017,[278] although that ban was only effective for a month,[279] and a similar ban is being considered in the European Union. [241] Its prevalence in the human body—at an adult average of 120 mg[u]—is nevertheless exceeded only by zinc (2500 mg) and iron (4000 mg) among the heavy metals. Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite v10.0.2.5089. Play games with your PBS KIDS favorites like Curious George, Wild Kratts, Daniel Tiger and Peg + Cat! [175][176] The impact was significant: while a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States in 1976–1980 showed that 77.8% of the population had elevated blood lead levels, in 1991–1994, a study by the same institute showed the share of people with such high levels dropped to 2.2%. An even number of either protons or neutrons generally increases the nuclear stability of isotopes, compared to isotopes with odd numbers. [166] In Africa, lead mining and smelting were known in the Benue Trough[167] and the lower Congo Basin, where lead was used for trade with Europeans, and as a currency by the 17th century,[168] well before the scramble for Africa. [118] At that time lead had few (if any) applications due to its softness and dull appearance. [254], In a child's developing brain, lead interferes with synapse formation in the cerebral cortex, neurochemical development (including that of neurotransmitters), and the organization of ion channels. ALIGNERS; CHOD; CLOTHING; HOOKS; HOOKLINKS; LEADERS; MAINLINE; PVA; RIG BITS; RIG TOOLS; Rods & Nets; TUNGSTEN; STOCKISTS; NEWS; ARTICLES; VIDEOS; TEAM ; CONTACT; … PB-Vac supply a wide range of Vacuum Cleaners and Vacuum Cleaner Spares, including Numatic Henry machines and all other models in the Numatic range. [294] Lead migration can be enhanced in acidic soils; to counter that, it is advised soils be treated with lime to neutralize the soils and prevent leaching of lead. Learn how Lovepop, a 3D pop-up greetings card company, uses Pitney Bowes technology to deliver a sending experience Lovepop customers love. [276], Anthropogenic lead includes lead from shot and sinkers. [111], The modern English word "lead" is of Germanic origin; it comes from the Middle English leed and Old English lēad (with the macron above the "e" signifying that the vowel sound of that letter is long). Typically they are removed in a series of pyrometallurgical processes. To get started enter the account number as shown on your postcard or letter. About PB Property; Meet The Team; Why PB Property? Username. Copper alloys with larger concentrations of lead are used in bearings. Environmental lead can compete with other metals found in and on plants surfaces potentially inhibiting photosynthesis and at high enough concentrations, negatively affecting plant growth and survival. [282], By the mid-1980s, there was significant decline in the use of lead in industry. Known in antiquity and believed by the alchemists to be the oldest of metals, lead is highly durable and resistant to corrosion , as is indicated by the continuing use of lead water pipes installed by the ancient Romans. The lead sulfide concentrate is melted in a furnace and oxidized, forming lead monoxide. Starting in the 13th century, lead was used to create stained glass. We also run Holiday Camps in Hull. It was less damaging to iron gun barrels, had a higher density (which allowed for better retention of velocity), and its lower melting point made the production of bullets easier as they could be made using a wood fire. “This was a slick amalgam of funk and jazz riffing, loose enough to attract people who appreciate improvised music, and funky … Client Connect is the centralized destination to manage your Global Ecommerce account with Pitney Bowes. PB&T Bank has been dedicated to providing reliable financial services to individuals and businesses in Colorado since 1889. [52] With itself, lead can build metal–metal bonds of an order up to three. a direct source is chewing on old painted window sills. [268], Treatment for lead poisoning normally involves the administration of dimercaprol and succimer. On capturing another neutron, lead-208 becomes lead-209, which quickly decays into bismuth-209. [193][194] De-silvered lead is freed of bismuth by the Betterton–Kroll process, treating it with metallic calcium and magnesium. [160] Lead, in the form of Venetian ceruse, was extensively used in cosmetics by Western European aristocracy as whitened faces were regarded as a sign of modesty. [172] Most European countries banned lead paint—commonly used because of its opacity and water resistance[173]—for interiors by 1930. [291], Lead waste, depending on the jurisdiction and the nature of the waste, may be treated as household waste (in order to facilitate lead abatement activities),[292] or potentially hazardous waste requiring specialized treatment or storage. [253] In pregnant women, high levels of exposure to lead may cause miscarriage. The J.D. [130], Lead was used for making water pipes in the Roman Empire; the Latin word for the metal, plumbum, is the origin of the English word "plumbing". Recycling Solutions With an unrivalled reputation across the capital; P.B. Spares and accessories PB-Vac has a massive range of vacuum cleaner spares and accessories. Access invoices and other financial details, handle support and more. [286] Lead may still be found in harmful quantities in stoneware,[287] vinyl[288] (such as that used for tubing and the insulation of electrical cords), and Chinese brass. More to consider from our brands. This word is related to the Latin plumbum, which gave the element its chemical symbol Pb. Some primary production plants now supplement their operations with scrap lead, and this trend is likely to increase in the future. Like their predecessors, the Romans obtained lead mostly as a by-product of silver smelting. The melt is treated in a reverberatory furnace with air, steam, and sulfur, which oxidizes the impurities except for silver, gold, and bismuth. Find out what is the full meaning of PB on Abbreviations.com! How to open PB files You need a suitable software like FAXability Fax to open a PB file. Kuching, Malaysia 22 contributions 6 helpful votes. [100] The r-process does not form as much lead as the s-process. Our experience is second to none when it comes to 4×4 Jeep, Toyota, Mitsubishi, Nissan and Land Rover overland preparation. Chronic, high-level exposure has been shown to reduce fertility in males. This causes ineffective heme synthesis and microcytic anemia. [79], Numerous mixed lead(II,IV) oxides are known. [138][139][n] Other researchers have criticized such claims, pointing out, for instance, that not all abdominal pain is caused by lead poisoning. [157] During the period, lead was used increasingly for adulterating wine. Lead was proven to be more dangerous in its fume form than as a solid metal. This led to research into the effects of lead intake. Diamond cubic structures with lattice parameters around the lattice parameter of silicon exists both in thin lead and tin films, and in massive lead and tin, freshly solidified in vacuum of ~5 x 10. [86] Other organolead compounds are less chemically stable. [240] A 2009 Canadian–American study concluded that even at levels that are considered to pose little to no risk, lead may cause "adverse mental health outcomes". Participatory budgeting (PB) is a way for people to have a direct say in how local money is spent. [114] Another hypothesis suggests it is borrowed from Proto-Celtic *ɸloud-io- ("lead"). Get the latest Prosperity Bancshares, Inc. PB detailed stock quotes, stock data, Real-Time ECN, charts, stats and more. PB Security. It has a greater affinity for lead than calcium, with the result that lead chelate is formed by exchange and excreted in the urine, leaving behind harmless calcium. Most lead ores contain a low percentage of lead (rich ores have a typical content of 3–8%) which must be concentrated for extraction. Pliny incorrectly wrote that stibnite would give lead on heating, instead of antimony. With a lowercase "b" a Pb is short for petabit. The half-life found in the experiment was 1.9, Abundances in the source are listed relative to silicon rather than in per-particle notation. The United Kingdom introduced mandatory factory inspections in 1878 and appointed the first Medical Inspector of Factories in 1898; as a result, a 25-fold decrease in lead poisoning incidents from 1900 to 1944 was reported. Delivering an excellent power-to-weight ratio, the PB-8010 weighs just 11.2kg with an output of 4.2kW. View real-time stock prices and stock quotes for a full financial overview. [89][k] With sodium metal, lead readily forms an equimolar alloy that reacts with alkyl halides to form organometallic compounds such as tetraethyllead. [173] Stripping old paint by sanding produces dust which can be inhaled. There are two main ways of doing this: a two-stage process involving roasting followed by blast furnace extraction, carried out in separate vessels; or a direct process in which the extraction of the concentrate occurs in a single vessel. By association, lead was considered the father of all metals. Savings. [188], Research on a cleaner, less energy-intensive lead extraction process continues; a major drawback is that either too much lead is lost as waste, or the alternatives result in a high sulfur content in the resulting lead metal. [171], Further evidence of the threat that lead posed to humans was discovered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. More info. In addition to being the main application for lead metal, lead-acid batteries are also the main consumer of lead compounds. One hypothesis suggests it is derived from Proto-Indo-European *lAudh- ("lead"; capitalization of the vowel is equivalent to the macron). [106] Many lead minerals are relatively light and, over the course of the Earth's history, have remained in the crust instead of sinking deeper into the Earth's interior. In the United States, environmental regulations reduced or eliminated the use of lead in non-battery products, including gasoline, paints, solders, and water systems. 1 Indonesia selama 10 tahun. Elemental abundance figures are estimates and their details may vary from source to source. Curbside pickup available Its atomic number is 82, atomic mass is 207.2 and has a melting point of 327.8°C. [99] This occurs in environments with a high neutron density, such as a supernova or the merger of two neutron stars. [212], Lead's high density, atomic number, and formability form the basis for use of lead as a barrier that absorbs sound, vibration, and radiation. The word *ɸloud-io- is thought to be the origin of Proto-Germanic *bliwa- (which also means "lead"), from which stemmed the German Blei. No elements with odd atomic numbers have more than two stable isotopes; even-numbered elements have multiple stable isotopes, with tin (element 50) having the highest number of isotopes of all elements, ten. PB is chat slang sometimes used for problem. [192][193] Metallic silver and gold are removed and recovered economically by means of the Parkes process, in which zinc is added to lead. [143][144] When lead poisoning did occur, victims were called "saturnine", dark and cynical, after the ghoulish father of the gods, Saturn. [179] The share of the world's lead production by the Eastern Bloc increased from 10% to 30%, from 1950 to 1990, with the Soviet Union being the world's largest producer during the mid-1970s and the 1980s, and China starting major lead production in the late 20th century. Today only - 30% off meter ink. [165] In Australia, the first mine opened by colonists on the continent was a lead mine, in 1841. PB Motorsport was founded in 2013 and consists by people with great experience, knowledge and passion about automotive engineering and exelixis. [202], Lead has been used for bullets since their invention in the Middle Ages. These are among the most potent sources of lead contamination along with lead production sites. Example of How to Use the P/B Ratio . Significant deposits are located in Australia, China, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Russia, and the United States. PB Tennis Coaching offers group and individual tennis coaching in Hull and Cherry Burton for junior tennis players and adult tennis players of all standards. Get involved. In animals, lead exhibits toxicity in many organs, damaging the nervous, renal, reproductive, hematopoietic, and cardiovascular systems after ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption. The Balearic slingers, used as mercenaries in Carthaginian and Roman armies, were famous for their shooting distance and accuracy. Check out our PB Products UK website for latest products. [284] A large drop in lead deposition occurred in the Netherlands after the 1993 national ban on use of lead shot for hunting and sport shooting: from 230 tonnes in 1990 to 47.5 tonnes in 1995. Get started. [262], The use of lead for water pipes is a problem in areas with soft or acidic water. [132][133][134] Writers of the time, such as Cato the Elder, Columella, and Pliny the Elder, recommended lead (or lead-coated) vessels for the preparation of sweeteners and preservatives added to wine and food. Beautiful landscaped place. Home to Antiques Roadshow, … [107][m], The main lead-bearing mineral is galena (PbS), which is mostly found with zinc ores. PBUG, the UK’s hottest Funk sensation, are at the forefront of the New Wave of Funk & Soul (Daft Punk, Mark Ronson, Bruno Mars, etc.). [171], In the 1970s, the United States and Western European countries introduced legislation to reduce lead air pollution. Lead tetrafluoride, a yellow crystalline powder, is stable, but less so than the difluoride. [281] An important biomarker assay for lead poisoning is δ-aminolevulinic acid levels in plasma, serum, and urine. [224], Lead is used in high voltage power cables as sheathing material to prevent water diffusion into insulation; this use is decreasing as lead is being phased out. Mechanisms of harm were better understood, lead blindness was documented, and the element was phased out of public use in the United States and Europe. [258], Lead exposure is a global issue since lead mining and smelting, and battery manufacturing/disposal/recycling, are common in many countries. Fresh ideas and modern technology meet years of racing preparation, experience and know how. 2. For example, a firm "...producing quality [lead] garden ornament from our studio in West London for over a century". Report abuse. Once electrical potential is applied, impure lead at the anode dissolves and plates onto the cathode, leaving the majority of the impurities in solution. [261] Fruit and vegetables can be contaminated by high levels of lead in the soils they were grown in. [221]} The reactions in the battery between lead, lead dioxide, and sulfuric acid provide a reliable source of voltage. By mimicking calcium, lead can cross the blood–brain barrier. Zinc, which is immiscible in lead, dissolves the silver and gold. It is a very poisonous and heavy metal. It is used as ballast in sailboat keels; its density allows it to take up a small volume and minimize water resistance, thus counterbalancing the heeling effect of wind on the sails. [206] Because of its corrosion resistance, lead is used as a protective sheath for underwater cables. [270], The extraction, production, use, and disposal of lead and its products have caused significant contamination of the Earth's soils and waters. Carbon (as coke or coal gas[p]) is added to the molten charge along with fluxing agents. [199], Of the sources of lead for recycling, lead–acid batteries are the most important; lead pipe, sheet, and cable sheathing are also significant. Dedication to customer care. Malleability describes how easily it deforms under compression, whereas ductility means its ability to stretch. [257] The rise and fall in exposure to airborne lead from the combustion of tetraethyl lead in gasoline during the 20th century has been linked with historical increases and decreases in crime levels, a hypothesis which is not universally accepted. [248] Cigarette smoke contains, among other toxic substances, radioactive lead-210. PB Scotland is now seeking to create a dedicated group of PB champions, who are able to support others on their journey. [299], This article was submitted to WikiJournal of Science for external academic peer review in 2019 (reviewer reports). Join the Network. The stable form of tin above this temperature is called β- or white tin and has a distorted face centered cubic (tetragonal) structure which can be derived by compressing the tetrahedra of gray tin along their cubic axes. [251] High levels of calcium and iron tend to provide some protection from lead poisoning; low levels cause increased susceptibility. A pb element should appear at the start of the page which it identifies. Pottery Barn’s expertly crafted collections offer a widerange of stylish indoor and outdoor furniture, accessories, decor and more, for every room in your home. Small blood pressure increases, particularly in middle-aged and older people, may be apparent and can cause anemia. A best-in-class product, it features a 79.9cc two-stroke engine producing an air volume of 1818m 3 /h, air speed of 94.5m/sec and a blowing force of 44N. The lead in batteries undergoes no direct contact with humans, so there are fewer toxicity concerns. The cycle hence ends at lead-206, lead-207, lead-208, and bismuth-209. PB Tech is NZ's largest computing and I.T. Pb definition: lead | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples pb ( computing , formal ) petabyte ( 1,000 terabytes or 10 15 bytes ) . Watch full episodes of your favorite PBS shows, explore music and the arts, find in-depth news analysis, and more. I eat it on toast with jam and tastes the same as real pb Read more. A petabyte is 10 15 bytes of digital information. [225] Its use in solder for electronics is also being phased out by some countries to reduce the amount of environmentally hazardous waste. The two main modes of capture are the s- and r-processes. [229] While lead paints are phased out in Europe and North America, they remain in use in less developed countries such as China,[230] India,[231] or Indonesia. What We Do. On capturing another neutron, bismuth-209 becomes bismuth-210, and this beta decays to polonium-210, which alpha decays to lead-206. FPS game 1 Thailand for 10 years. [296][297] The fungus Aspergillus versicolor is effective at absorbing lead ions from industrial waste before being released to water bodies. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMeijaCoplenBerglundBrand2016 (, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a problem in areas with soft or acidic water, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, University of California Nuclear Forensic Search Project, Committee on Evaluation of EPA Guidelines for Exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials et al. The lead conferred an agreeable taste due to the formation of "sugar of lead" (lead(II) acetate), whereas copper or bronze vessels could impart a bitter flavor through verdigris formation. Search for: Personal. [177] The main product made of lead by the end of the 20th century was the lead–acid battery. [151], Lead mining in Western Europe declined after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, with Arabian Iberia being the only region having a significant output. [110], Typical background concentrations of lead do not exceed 0.1 μg/m3 in the atmosphere; 100 mg/kg in soil; and 5 μg/L in freshwater and seawater. Get the latest Prosperity Bancshares, Inc. PB detailed stock quotes, stock data, Real-Time ECN, charts, stats and more. In every project, we strive to fully understand our clients’ needs and apply their feedback and ideas into our designs. The most well-characterized exceptions are Pb[CH(SiMe3)2]2 and Pb(η5-C5H5)2. Lead is very malleable , ductile, and dense and is a poor conductor of electricity. Working with both large and small scale business, PB Security is a professional and fully accredited Fire & Security Company. Federal Gov't Order Bans Sinkers, Ammo", "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Next-generation ice core technology reveals true minimum natural levels of lead (Pb) in the atmosphere: Insights from the Black Death", "Gender and hierarchical differences in lead-contaminated Japanese bone from the Edo period", National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards — Lead", "Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease—A Systematic Review", "Substance data sheet for occupational exposure to lead", "East Penn and Ecoult battery installation case study webinar", "Bacterial-assisted immobilization of lead in soils: Implications for remediation", "Environmental Stewardship with Regional Perspectives and Drivers of the Lead-free Issue", "How Lead Acid Batteries Work: Battery Basics", "Imputing lead sources from blood lead isotope ratios", "Lead poisoning: Historical aspects of a paradigmatic "occupational and environmental disease, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, "Endocrine disruptors and abnormalities of pubertal development", "Templated three-dimensional growth of quasicrystalline lead", "Over 73% of paints found to have excessive lead: Study", "Lead exposure and its effects on the reproductive system", "Bound-state beta decay of highly ionized atoms", "Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Lead Toxicity", "Autocatalytic oxidation of lead crystallite surfaces", "Significant growth in lead usage underlines its importance to the global economy", "Toronto museum explores history of contraceptives", "Comparison of sodium and lead-cooled fast reactors regarding reactor physics aspects, severe safety and economical issues", "Metallurgical Industry:Secondary Lead Processing", "Regulatory Status of Waste Generated by Contractors and Residents from Lead-Based Paint Activities Conducted in Households (August 2000)", "Best Management Practices for Lead at Outdoor Shooting Ranges", United States Food and Drug Administration, Q3D Elemental Impurities Guidance for Industry, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Government Publishing Office, The Preservation and Repair of Historic Stained and Leaded Glass, "The physics behind four amazing demonstrations — CSI", Environmental Health Criteria 165: Inorganic Lead, "Battling lead contamination, one fish bone at a time", "Analytical study of the basic properties of lead tetraacetate as oxidizing agent", The Toxicology of Heavy Metals: Getting the Lead Out, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lead&oldid=991034800, Wikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed literature, Wikipedia articles published in WikiJournal of Science, Wikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed literature (W2J), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Middle English (1100-1500)-language text, Articles containing Old English (ca. A similar fashion appeared in Japan in the 18th century with the emergence of the geishas, a practice that continued long into the 20th century. A further sesquioxide, Pb2O3, can be obtained at high pressure, along with several non-stoichiometric phases. [283] Lead use was further curtailed by the European Union's 2003 Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. Educational games and videos from Curious George, Wild Kratts and other PBS KIDS shows! View Prosperity Bancshares, Inc. PB investment & stock information. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. [182], As of 2014, production of lead is increasing worldwide due to its use in lead–acid batteries. 4.7 out of 5 stars 2,091 The first laws aimed at decreasing lead poisoning in factories were enacted during the 1870s and 1880s in the United Kingdom. Almost all inhaled lead is absorbed into the body; for ingestion, the rate is 20–70%, with children absorbing a higher percentage than adults. [223] These batteries have lower energy density and charge-discharge efficiency than lithium-ion batteries, but are significantly cheaper. … [90] The oxidizing nature of many organolead compounds is usefully exploited: lead tetraacetate is an important laboratory reagent for oxidation in organic synthesis. Drinking such water, over time, can cause health problems due to the toxicity of the dissolved lead. [245], Lead is a highly poisonous metal (whether inhaled or swallowed), affecting almost every organ and system in the human body. For other uses, see, Isotopic abundances vary greatly by sample.
2020 pb&j otter pinch raccoon