We can understand, in light of the above, the reason why “the colours of which Margarete dreamt cannot be translated from the speculative infinity of configuration into the inscription of coloured marks on a surface proper to painting” (Caygill, 1998, p.11). Waldorf education (also known as Steiner or Steiner-Waldorf education) is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based upon the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Third, in a society in which there is a single system of education governed by a single prevailing theory of education, a philosopher may do any of four things with respect to education: he may analyze the concepts and reasoning used in connection with education in order to make people's thinking about it as clear, explicit, and logical as possible; he may seek to support the prevailing system by providing more philosophical arguments for the dispositions aimed at and the methods used; he may criticize the system and seek to reform it in the light of some more philosophical theory of education he has arrived at; or he may simply teach logic and philosophy to future educators and parents in the hope that they will apply them to educational matters. He worked for nearly a quarter century in St. Louis, Missouri, where he taught school and served as Superintendent of Schools for twelve years. Caygill argues that the “distortion introduced by the translation between the speculative and transcendental infinities does not only concern the being-there of things, but also, as was intimated by Margarete’s narration of her dream, the being there of gazing subjects” (Caygill, 1998, p.11). And so the challenge is to find a way of characterizing the field that is true to its eclecticism but that also looks back reflexively at the effects of such characterizations, including itself, in the dynamics of disciplinary boundary maintenance and methodological rule-setting that are continually under dispute. … On the basis of these initial definitions Georg provisionally concludes that ‘the surface and not colour is the essence of painting’. Pure colour is therefore both present through this medium (as representation) and fails to be present in itself. Put another way, the ancient individual could ‘read’ from a number of configured surfaces and the modern individual is only able to read from the surface of legibility: can only read what has been written. No one kind of premise is always necessary in (2) in every educational context. ARCHAMBAULT, REGINALD D., ed. Similarly Rose and Hegel argue that the task of education is to free “determinate thoughts from their fixity” (Hegel, 1977, p.19). But such concerns have so preoccupied its practitioners that at times these very questions seem to become the substance of the discipline, nearly to the exclusion of thinking about actual educational problems. During certain periods of the history of the philosophy of education, there have been dominant perspectives, to be sure: At one time, the field was defined around canonical works on education by great philosophers (Plato of ancient Greece, the eighteenth-century Swiss-born Frenchman Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and others); at other times, the field was dominated, in the United States at least, by the figure of John Dewey (1859–1952) and educational Progressivism; at other times, the field was characterized by an austere analytical approach that explicitly rejected much of what had come before in the field as not even being proper "philosophy" at all. … The series of configurations which consciousness goes through along this road is, in reality, the detailed history of the education of consciousness itself to the standpoint of Science. “Speculative” philosophy has a few meanings but often that spun out of intuition, natural law, ideal realms and the like. It’s shameful. In very brief terms, Speculative Philosophy is metaphysical, and asks questions about God, the Immortal Soul, Cosmic Creation and Life After Death. But even during these periods of dominance there were sharp internal disputes within the field (such as feminist criticisms of the "Great Man" approach to philosophy of education and vigorous critiques of the analytical method). Definition of Education by Different Authors- Looking for a definition of education by different philosopher than you are in the right place. 4, p. … Others also look to the prevailing culture for the dispositions to be fostered but appeal as well to experience, possibly even to science, for the methods to be used. In part three the essay will consider whether Rose and Benjamin’s speculative philosophy is educative. This idea was also evident in Benjamin’s dialogue on colour when Georg tells Margarete that the reason she has never seen the colours she experienced in her dreams before is that “painting does not begin from colour [:]‘the surface and not colour is the essence of painting’”(Caygill, 1998, p.10). Torsten Husén and T. Neville Postlethwaite. Caygill writes, If the idea is meant only to recognise or bear witness to the distorted form of the future in the present, then it remains critical, serving to ‘point out the crisis lying in the essence of things and to lead to a decision that overcomes the cowardly and to which the brave subordinate themselves’ (1915b:37). This reduction in the possibilities of ‘truth’ is an indication that the modern individual has a reduced ability to experience ‘truth’. In these writings Benjamin questions both the structure and the basic assumptions of Kant’s concept of experience. Speculative Philosophy Alfred North Whitehead SECTION I This course of lectures is designed as an essay in Speculative Philosophy. Caygill argues, however, that “this final step in the argument is extremely precarious, for it poises Benjamin’s thought on the borders of speculative dogmatism” (Caygill, 1998, p.9). ERIC - EJ249298 - The Function of Speculative Thought in the Philosophy of Education., Texas Tech Journal of Education, 1981. This question was the substance of Immanuel Kant’s first book, Critique of Pure Reason (1780). Perhaps these impulses can be more easily generalized about the field than any particular set of categories, schools of thought, or disciplinary methods. "Philosophy of Education: Analytic Tradition." Rolf Tiedemann and Hermann Shweppenhauser) (1972) Gesammelte Schriften, Volume I (Suhrkamp Verlag), Benjamin, W. (1996) Selected Writings, Volume 1: 1913 – 1926 (Harvard University Press), Caygill, H. (1995) A Kant Dictionary (Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Limited). It is certainly held to be the function of a philosopher to discuss the nature of Reality as a whole, and to consider the position and prospects of men in it. Caygill introduces Benjamin’s work by suggesting that “all of Benjamin’s writings… may be read as anticipations of a ‘coming philosophy’” (Caygill, 1998, p.1). Indeed, it makes for strange bedfellows when people consider that despite their vigorous paradigmatic differences they are actually motivated by very similar underlying philosophical commitments. Benjamin writes, On painterly colour: it arises as a simple phenomenon in the imagination, but its purity is distorted by its existence in space and this is the origin of light and shade. I wasn’t aware of this disparity. § 14. Caygill suggests that it is “in this experience [that the] two components of Kant’s account of experience – sensibility and the understanding – collapse into each other, and the experiencing subject which would contain them dissolves into experience” (Caygill, 1998, p.11). ANDERSON, R. N., et al. Its first task must be to define ‘speculative philosophy,’ and to defend it as a method productive of important knowledge. (Caygill, 1998, p.154). The third part of the essay is ultimately concerned with addressing the question as to whether speculative philosophy is educative, whether speculative philosophy is the possibility of education. Caygill writes, Georg explains why painting is unable to represent such an experience of colour. Prescriptive:. 1946, George Conger, "Method and Content in Philosophy," The Philosophical Review, vol. A history is given of the internal strife that has characterized academic philosophy during this century. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. Further, Rose demonstrates how this assumption stands “in the way of… attempts to retrieve Hegelian speculative philosophy” (Rose, 1995, p.1). "Mothers of In (ter) vention: Women's Writing in Philosophy of Education." While philosophers tend to stress the force of argument in driving their adoption of such views, and while they do certainly change their minds because of argument and evidence, at some deeper level they are less prone to changing the very impulses that drive and give vigor to their philosophical investigations. "The Foundations of Professionalism: Fifty Years of the Philosophy of Education Society in Retrospect." (Marx, 1975:379)” (Tubbs, 1998, p.34) however, that we can begin to comprehend the educational significance of her work: [Rose] answer[s that it]is… in relation to this dialectic we can comprehend the formative (educational) substance of the contradictions which we experience and repeat in our theorizing and in our lives” (Tubbs, 1998, p.34). Advocates of more analytical approaches, as noted, tend to put more reliance upon the tools of philosophical investigation, and less on particular authors or sources. CRITICALANDSPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY ByG.D.BROAD Born1887.DulwichandTrinityCollege^Cambridge. However, in the twentieth century philosophy of education tended to be developed in schools of education in the context of what is called foundations of education, thus linking it with other parts of the discipline of education–educational history, psychology, and sociology–rather than with other parts of philosophy. BLAKE, NIGEL; SMEYERS, PAUL; SMITH, RICHARD; and STANDISH, PAUL, eds. Again it does not follow that this is all analytical philosophy is concerned with doing. Caygill writes, “for a divergent reading [of Hegelian speculative philosophy] see Gillian Rose, Hegel contra Sociology” (Caygill, 1998, p.154). practical reason of itself, without any collusion with speculative reason, furnishes reality to a supersensible object of the category of causality, namely to freedom (although, as a practical concept, only for practical use), and hence establishes by means of a fact what could there only be thought. Rose argues that “to read a proposition ‘speculatively’ means that the identity which is affirmed between subject and predicate is seen equally to affirm a lack of identity between subject and predicate” (Rose, 1995, pp.48-9). 1994. SCHEFFLER, ISRAEL, ed. Dewey once said that since education is the process of forming fundamental dispositions toward nature and our fellow human beings, philosophy may even be defined as the most general theory of education. Video shows what speculative philosophy means. In the first form, philosophy of education was traditionally developed by philosophers–for example, Aristotle, Augustine, and John Locke–as part of their philosophical systems, in the context of their ethical theories. 55, no. In Philosophy of Education: An Encyclopedia, ed. It is in relation to Benjamin’s fragment on perception, that we find an argument to suggest that Rose has gone further than Benjamin. Essentially the term refers to the anticipation of a restoration to the original condition. Put simply speculative philosophy is educative precisely because it enables our thinking to understand its experience of the limits of its thinking in the transcendental in a changed way. J. J. Chambliss. "Philosophy of Education: Definitions of the Field, 1942–1982." noun. Juan Gomez writes… In my last post I commented on a text by Edward Bentham that defended the use if the syllogistic in logic, in particular for education. The essay has demonstrated that the place where education vanishes is exactly the place where we find the possibility of education. Benjamin therefore describes the reduction in the modern individual’s ability to read by arguing that the possibility of comprehending the speculative is lost in the transcendental space: ‘painting projects the infinite configurations of colour…  into the transcendental realm of inscription and surface” (Caygill, 1998, p.11). Logicians, linguistic philosophers, and philosophers of science may also be able to contribute to the technology of education, as it has come to be called, for example, to the theory of testing or of language instruction. Tubbs, N. (1998), What is Love’s Work?, Women: a cultural review, 9, 1, pp. However, Rose in Hegel contra Sociology (1995) is also offering hope in the face of this aporia in her retrieval of Hegelian speculative experience. Firstly, because Hegel argues that ancient man was ‘properly’ ‘educated’ by describing the nature of the education which ‘properly’ ‘educated’ him: philosophy. (Caygill, 1998a, p.22). Caygill concludes that, …colour or infinite configuration in painting is subordinated to a particular configuration of mark and surface (inscription) [which] … entails that a particular modality of colour – the polar contrast of black and white –  becomes the canon for the spectrum of tonal values which serves as the medium for colour. This essay compares Benjamin’s ‘transcendental but speculative’ concept of experience and Rose’s retrieval of Hegelian speculative experience. 1992. This is of great significance in so far as Hegel argues that in ancient times natural consciousness was comprehensive and in modern times, as Benjamin argues in relation to the ability to read, there has been a reduction in the possibility of experience. EDEL, ABRAHAM. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Caygill writes, Benjamin came to realise that extending the limits of experience meant that philosophising could move beyond classical problems and texts, into critical reflection upon literature, art, and culture in the broadest sense.
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